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新视野大学英语 读写教程第二册 unit1-b

2011-07-29    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
Section B

Culture Shock
 
Do you think studying in a different country is something that sounds very exciting? Like many young people who leave home to study in another country, do you think you would have lots of desirable fun? Certainly, it is a new experience, which brings the opportunity of discovering fascinating things and a feeling of freedom. In spite of these advantages, however, there are also some challenges you will encounter. Because your views may clash with the different beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that exist in different countries, you may have difficulty adjusting to a new culture and to those parts of the culture not familiar to you. This is culture shock. Evidently, at least four essential stages of culture-shock adjustment occur.
 
The first stage is called "the honeymoon". In this stage, you feel excitement about living in a different place, and everything seems to be marvelous. You like everything, and everybody seems to be so nice to you. Also, the amusement of life in a new culture seems as though it will have no ending.
 
Eventually, however, the second stage of culture shock appears. This is the "hostility stage". You begin to notice that not everything is as good as you had originally thought it was. You become tired of many things about the new culture. Moreover, people don't treat you like a guest anymore. Everything that seemed to be so wonderful at first is now awful, and everything makes you feel distressed and tired.
 
Usually at this point in your adjustment to a new culture, you devise some defense mechanisms to help you cope and to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock. One type of coping mechanism is called "repression". This happens when you pretend that everything is acceptable and that nothing bothers you. Another type of defense mechanism is called "regression". This occurs when you start to act as if you are younger than you actually are; you act like a child. You forget everything, and sometimes you become careless and irresponsible. The third kind of defense mechanism is called "isolation". You would rather be home alone, and you don't want to communicate with anybody. With isolation, you try to avoid the effects of culture shock, or at least that's what you think. Isolation is one of the worst coping mechanisms you can use because it separates you from those things that could really help you. The last type of defense mechanism is called "rejection". With this coping mechanism, you think you don't need anybody. You feel you are coping fine alone, so you don't try to ask for help.
 
The defense mechanisms you utilize in the hostility stage are not helpful. If you only occasionally use one of these coping mechanisms to help yourself survive, that is acceptable. You must be cautious, however. These mechanisms can really hurt you because they prevent you from making necessary adjustments to the new culture.
 
After you deal with your hostile feelings, recognition of the temporary nature of culture shock begins. Then you come to the third stage called "recovery". In this stage, you start feeling more positive, and you try to develop comprehension of everything you don't understand. The whole situation starts to become more favorable; you recover from the symptoms of the first two stages, and you adjust yourself to the new norms, values, and even beliefs and traditions of the new country. You begin to see that even though the distinctions of the culture are different from your own, it has elements that you can learn to appreciate.
 
The last stage of culture shock is called "adjustment". In this stage, you have reached a point where you actually feel good because you have learned enough to understand the new culture. The things that initially made you feel uncomfortable or strange are now things that you understand. This acquisition of understanding alleviates much of the stress. Now you feel comfortable; you have adjusted to the new culture.
 
Evidently, culture shock is something you cannot avoid when living in a foreign country. It does not seem like a very helpful experience when you are going through its four stages. However, when you have completely adjusted to a new culture you can more fully enjoy it. You learn how to interact with other people, and you learn a considerable amount about life in a culture that is not your own. Furthermore, learning about other cultures and how to adjust to the shock of living in them helps you learn more about yourself.
 
NEW WORDS
 
desirable
a. worth having; be wished for 令人向往的;值得有的;合意的
 
fascinating
a. having great attraction or delight 有极大吸引力的,迷人的
 
spite
n. 1. 用于短语 in spite of: not being prevented by (sb./sth.); regardless of 虽然;不顾,尽管
2. [U] desire to hurt, offend another person; ill will 恶意;怨恨
 
clash
vi. 1. disagree seriously (about sth.) 严重不一致,冲突
2. come together and fight 冲突,交锋,遭遇
n. 1. serious disagreement; arguing 严重不一致;争论
2. violent contact; fight 抵触,冲突
 
tradition
n. [U, C] beliefs or customs passed down from one generation to the next, esp. without writing; any long-established method, practice, etc. 传统;惯例
 
evidently
ad. obviously; it appears that 明显地
 
excitement
n. 1. [U] state of strong emotional reaction or feeling, esp. one caused by sth. pleasant 兴奋,激动,刺激(尤指令人愉快的事引起的)
2. [C] a thing that excites; an exciting event 令人兴奋的事,使人激动的事件
 
marvelous(英marvellous)
a. surprising; outstanding; wonderful 惊奇的;奇妙的,不可思议的
 
amuse
vt. 1. make (sb.) laugh or smile 逗……乐(笑)
2. make time pass pleasantly for (sb.) 给……娱乐(消遣);以……自娱
 
amusement
n. 1. [C]a thing that makes time pass pleasantly 娱乐(消遣)活动,娱乐品,娱乐场所
2. [U] state of being amused 娱乐,快乐
 
ending
n. [C] an end, esp. of a story, film or word(尤指故事、影片、戏剧)结局,结尾
 
hostile
a. 1.showing strong hate or objecting to; very unfriendly 怀有敌意的;敌对的
2.of an enemy 敌方的
 
hostility
n. 1. [U] being hostile (to sb./sth.) 敌意,敌对,敌视
2. [U] being against 抵制,反对
3. (pl.) acts of war; fighting 战争;战斗
 
moreover
ad. (used to introduce sth. new that adds to or supports the previous statement) further; as well as; in addition 再有;此外;而且
 
distress
n. 1. [U] (cause of) great pain, sadness, suffering, etc. 痛苦,苦恼,忧伤(的原因)
2. [U] suffering (caused by lack of money, food, etc.) (缺钱、缺食物造成的)穷苦,贫困
3. [U] state of being in danger or difficulty and requiring help 危险,危难
vt. cause distress to (sb./sth.) 使痛苦,使悲痛,使忧伤,使贫困
 
devise
vt. think out (a plan, tool, etc.) 想出(计划),发明(设备、工具)
 
mechanism
n. 1. [C]【心】心理机制
2. [C] method or steps for getting things done 手法,技巧,途径
3. [C] working parts of a machine, etc. 机械装置,机件
 
cope
vi. (with) manage successfully; be able to deal with sth. difficult (成功地)应付,能对付
 
repression
n. 1. [U]control or preventing【心】压抑(把本能的欲望和冲动,尤与一般公认的行为标准相冲突的,压抑于潜意识中),压抑作用,压抑机制
2. [U] cruel and severe control 镇压,抑制
 
regression
n. [U] return to a former state 【心】 回归,倒退(指当个人追求的愿望得不到满足或受严重挫折时,即以与其年龄不相称的发展早期的某些原始的幼稚行为来适应当前,由意识状态倒退到无意识状态的一种变态心理现象。)
 
isolate
vt. put or keep sb./sth. entirely apart from other people or things; separate sb./sth. 使孤立;使隔绝,使隔离
 
isolation
n. [U] isolating or being isolated 隔离,孤立,分解,分离
 
avoid
vt. 1. keep oneself away from (sb./sth.) 避开,逃避
2. stop sth. happening; prevent 避免;防止
 
reject
vt. 1. refuse to accept (sb./sth.) 拒绝,不接受
2. throw (sth.) away as not to be used, chosen, done, etc. 抛弃,丢弃
n. [C] rejected person or thing 被弃或被拒的人或物
 
rejection
n. [U, C] rejecting or being rejected 拒绝,被拒,抛弃,被弃
 
helpful
a. giving help; useful 有帮助的;有益的
 
recognition
n. 1. [U] the state of being accepted as legal, real, or valuable 承认,认可
2. [U] the fact of knowing sb. or sth. 认出,认识
3. [U] reward or honor 酬谢,赏识,表彰
 
recovery
n. 1. [U] (sing.) return to a normal state 恢复,复原,痊愈
2. [U] getting back 寻回,追回,收复
 
comprehension
n. 1. [U] (power of) understanding 理解(力),领悟
2. [U, C] exercise aimed at improving or testing one's understanding (written or spoken) (书面或口头)理解力练习,理解力测验
 
favorable (英favourable)
a. 1. helpful; suitable 有帮助的;适宜的
2. giving or showing agreement 赞同的
 
symptom
n. 1. [C] a change in the body that shows an illness 症候,症状
2. [C] a sign of the existence of sth. wrong (坏事物存在的)迹象,征兆,征候
 
distinction
n. 1. [C] special element, special or unique quality 个性,特征
2. [C, U] a difference or contrast between one person/thing and another 区分,区别
3. [U] a quality of excellence 卓著,盛名

appreciate
vt. 1. understand and enjoy (sth.); value highly 欣赏,赏识
2. understand (sth.) with sympathy 理解,意识到,懂得
vi. increase in value 增值,涨价
 
acquisition
n. 1. [U] action of gaining 获得,得到
2. [C] a thing gained, esp. sth. useful 获得物(尤指有用的东西),添加物
 
alleviate
vt. make sth. less serious; ease 减轻;缓和
 
furthermore
ad. in addition; moreover 此外,还有
 
PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS
 
adjust to
become or make suited (to new conditions) 使适应(新环境),适应
 
be familiar to
well known to; often seen or heard by 为……所熟悉的;常见(听)到的
 
culture shock
confusion caused by contact with a culture other than one's own 文化冲击,文化震撼(在陌生的文化环境中不知所措)
 
in the stage
in a part of activity or a period of development 在……阶段,在……时期
 
be tired of
be impatient or fed up with (sb./sth.) 讨厌,不耐烦,厌烦
 
separate from
(cause things or people to) divide 使分离,分开
 
prevent from
stop (sb. or sth.) from (doing sth.) 阻止,防止
 
deal with
take action on; manage 处理,对付
 
come to
reach a certain state 达到某状态
 
recover from
return to a normal state from 从……恢复到正常状态
 
go through
experience; finish certain stages 通过;完成(某阶段)

 



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