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新视野大学英语 读写教程第一册 unit4-b

2011-07-28    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
Section B

Body Language
 
"I liked him the minute I saw him!" "Before she even said a word, I knew there was something funny about her." Such statements are examples of "snap judgments", opinions which are formed suddenly, seemingly on no sound reason at all. Most people say snap judgments are unsound or even dangerous. They also admit they often make snap judgments and find them to be fairly sound.
 
Snap judgments like "love at first sight" or "instant hate", if taken seriously, have usually been considered signs of immaturity or lack of common sense. When someone "has a feeling" about someone else, people more often laugh than pay attention. Most people think you find out about a person by listening to what he says over a period of time. Others say "actions speak louder than words," usually in relation to keeping promises, paying bills or sending money home.
 
Because people assume "you are what you say you are", they talk a lot to become acquainted with each other. Once two people have become acquainted, they think it was their conversation that gave them their information about each other.
 
As behavioral sciences develop, however, researchers find the importance of speech has been overestimated. Although speech is the most obvious form of communication, we do use other forms of which we may be only partially aware or, in some cases, completely unaware. It is possible we are unconsciously sending messages with every action, messages which are unconsciously picked up by others and used in forming opinions. These unconscious actions and reactions to them may in part account for our "feelings" and "snap judgments".
 
We communicate a great deal, researchers have found, with our bodies — by the way we move, sit, stand and what we do with our hands and heads. Imagine a few people sitting in a waiting room: one is tapping his fingers on his briefcase, another keeps rubbing his hands together, another is biting his fingernails, still another grabs the arms of his chair tightly and one keeps running his fingers through his hair. These people aren't talking but they're "saying" a lot if you know the "body language" they're using.
 
Two of the most "telling" forms of behavior are driving a car and playing games. Notice a person's reaction to stress in these situations and to aggressive behavior in others. Those who easily become angry, excited, passive or resentful when driving or playing may be giving insights into the inside self.
 
While clothing serves a purely practical function, how you dress also communicates many things about your social status, state of mind and even your aspirations and dreams. The eleven-year-old girl who dresses like a college student and the forty-year-old woman who dresses like a teenager are saying something through what they wear. What you communicate through your kind of dress definitely influences others to accept the picture of yourself you are projecting: in the business world, the person who dresses like a successful manager is most likely to be promoted into a managing position.
 
Also important are the ornaments a person wears: buttons, medals, jewels, etc. Such ornaments are often the means by which a person announces a variety of things about himself: his convictions (campaign buttons), his beliefs (religious tokens), his membership in certain groups (club pins or badges), his past achievements (college ring or Phi Beta Kappa key) and his economic status (diamonds).
 
Another sign of a person's nature is said to be found in his choices in architecture and furniture. A person who would really like to live in a castle would probably be more at home in the Middle Ages. Those who like Victorian family houses and furniture might secretly welcome a return to more rigid social norms. People who are content with modern design are probably comfortable with modern life-styles.
 
When you see a person for the first time, even though he doesn't speak to you, you begin watching him — his actions, his attitude, his clothing and many other things. There's a wealth of information there if you know how to "read" it. Perhaps snap judgments aren't so unsound after all.
 
NEW WORDS
 
statement
n. something that one says or writes, often officially 说话,叙述,声明
 
snap
a. done quickly and suddenly, often without careful thought 迅速的,突然的
 
judgment(英judgement)
n. 1. an opinion 看法,意见
2. the ability to form common sense opinions or to make wise decisions 判断力,识别力
 
seemingly
ad. in a way it appears; as if 从表面上看起来;似乎是
 
instant
a. immediate; happening suddenly or at once 立即的,即刻的;瞬间发生的
 
action
n. something one does 行为
 
assume
vt. accept or believe that sth. is true even though one has no evidence 假定;想当然认为,臆断
 
acquaint
vt. make someone or oneself familiar with or aware of 使认识,使了解
 
behavior (behaviour)
n. the way one acts or behaves 行为,举止
 
behavioral (behavioural)
a. concerning the behavior of an animal or a person, or the study of their behavior (关于)行为的;行为科学的
 
estimate
vt. figure out; judge 估计;判断
 
overestimate
v. think sth. is bigger or more important, etc. than it really is 过高估计,过高评价
 
obvious
a. easily seen or understood; clear 显然的,明显的
 
partial
a. not complete 部分的,不完全的
 
partially
ad. partly; not completely 部分地,不完全地
 
account
v. (for) explain or give a reason for 作出解释,提出理由,说明
n. 1. a report or description of sth. that has happened 记述,描述,报告
2. the plan by which a bank looks after your money for you 账户;交易关系
 
rub
vt. move one thing against another 擦,摩擦
 
aggressive
a. 1. using or showing force or stress in order to succeed 活跃有为的,积极进取的
2. ready or likely to fight or argue 挑衅的,侵略的
 
passive
a. not active; not showing any feelings or action 被动的;消极的
 
resent
v. feel angry about sth. because it is unfair (尤指因感到委屈、伤害等)对……表示忿恨,对……怨恨
 
resentful
a. feeling annoyed 充满忿恨的,怨恨不止的
 
function
n. the purpose or special duty of a person or thing 功能,作用,机能
 
social
a. 1. concerning the position of people in society 一定社会地位的
2. concerning how people or groups of people connect; about the order of society 社会的
 
status
n. one's social or work position when compared to other people 地位,身份
 
aspiration
n. (often pl.) a strong desire to have or do sth. (常用复数)强烈的愿望,志向
 
project
vt. 1. show or present (oneself or one's qualities) in a certain way 表明……特征,使呈现特性
2. plan 打算,计划
n. 1. a plan or secret plan 计划,规划
2. a piece of study or research (学术交流的)课题,作业,科研项目
 
promote
vt. 1. raise someone to a higher level or position 提升,晋升
2. encourage; help the progress of sth. 促进,增进
 
ornament
n. something added to make something else look better 装饰品,点缀品
 
medal
n. 奖牌,奖章,勋章
 
jewel
n. 宝石,宝石饰物;首饰
 
conviction
n. a very strong opinion or belief 坚定的信仰;确信
 
campaign
n. a plan to do a number of things in order to achieve a special aim 运动
 
belief
n. 1. an idea about faith, political ideas, etc. 信念,信仰
2. a feeling that sb. or sth. is true, good or right, or that sb. or sth. really exists 相信,信任
 
religious
a. 1. connected with faith 宗教的,宗教上的
2. having a strong belief in a faith 笃信宗教的,虔诚的
 
token
n. something that stands for or is a sign of something else 标志,象征
 
membership
n. the state of being a member 会员身份,会员资格
 
badge
n. 徽章,证章;标记,标识
 
achievement
n. something that is done successfully, esp. through hard work or skill 成就,成绩
 
economic
a. connected with the supply of money, trade, industry, etc. 经济的,经济上的
 
architecture
n. the style or kind of building 建筑式样,建筑风格
 
rigid
a. strict 严格的,死板的
 
norm
n. what people normally do or follow 准则
 
style
n. the way that sth. is done, built, etc. 样式,风格
 
life-style
n. the way one lives 生活方式
 
PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS
 
lack of
not having enough of 缺乏,不足
 
find out
discover 找出,查明,发现
 
actions speak louder than words
one is judged by what he does, rather than what he says he will do 行动比言语更响亮;事实胜于雄辩
 
in relation to
concerning 有关,关于
 
become/be acquainted with
become/be familiar or friendly with 与……相识,了解
 
pick up
1. learn interesting or useful information 获得
2. learn a new skill or language by practicing it rather than being taught it 学会
 
in part
to some degree; not completely 在某种程度上;部分
 
account for
explain or give a reason for 作出解释,提出理由,说明
 
be/feel at home
be/feel comfortable 感到无拘束,感到熟悉
 
be content with
be satisfied or happy with 对……感到满足
 
a wealth of
a great quantity of 大量的,丰富的
 
PROPER NAMES
 
Phi Beta Kappa
PBK联谊会(美国大学优秀生和毕业生的荣誉组织,成立于1776年);PBK联谊会会员
 
Victorian
connected with the time of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) (英国)维多利亚(女王)的,维多利亚时代的,维多利亚式的

 



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